March 27, 1946 - Chinese Civil War

chinese civil warChinese Civil War (War of Liberation), 1 August 1945 – 1 October 1949

The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Communist Party of China, and the Kuomintang-led Republic of China started from August 1927 to 1949 with the victory of the Communist Party of China by establishing the People’s Republic of China on 1 October 1949.

After the Qing Dynasty collapsed from the Xinhai Revolution in 1927, Sun Zhongshan established Kuomintang, a Chinese nationalist party. In the same year, the Communist Party of China was established. There were several clashes happened from 1927 o 1945. But the major conflict occurred from 1 August 1945 to 1 October 1949. This conflict is also named as War of Liberation.

During the Chongqing negotiation in August 1945, Mao Zedong, the leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of Kuomintang (KMT), signed the Double Tenth Agreement. Both sides agreed on the importance of a peace reconstruction. However, this agreement did not produce any concrete results. On 26 June 1946, the full-scale war started between CPC and KMT. The KMT had advantages in weapons and training of soldiers with the support from the United States, while the CPC’s ultimate policy was its land reform policy. The CPC gave promises to peasants and farmers that they would be given lands after the war ended. As a result, the unlimited human resources were accessible to CPC. The United States sent 50,000 US troops to support KMT. The KMT had received $4.43 billion from the US with most of which was military aid.

On 20 July 1946, Chiang Kai-shek launched a large-scale attack on Communist-controlled Northern China with 1.6 million troops. This assault marked the first stage of the final phase in the Chinese Civil War. Knowing their disadvantages in human resources and equipment, the CPC executed a “passive defense” strategy, which turned out to be successful. In March 1947, KMT seized CPC’s capital Yan’an, which was a remarkable achievement. On 30 June 1937, CPC attained Central Plain. The CPC encountered enormous obstacles while trying to achieve Changchun. They launched the Liaoshen Campaign and obtained Changchun. The capture of KMT troops allowed the CPC to get many weapons.

April 1948, Luoyang fell, cutting KMT off from Xi’an. CPC attained Jinan and Shandong on 24 September 1948. From late 1948 to early 1949, the Huaihai Campaign secured east-central China for the CPC. Through Pingjin Campaign from 21 November 1948 to 31 January 1949, the CPC acquired northern China. In April 1949, the CPC acquired KMT’s capital, Nanjing. The KMT retreated to Guangzhou, Chongqing, Chengdu, and eventually Taiwan on 10 December.

On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong announced the establishment of the People’s Republic of China with the capital Beijing (used to called Beiping), which marked the end of the Chinese Civil War.

The Chinese Civil War was an important event for the United States during the Cold War because the Cold War itself was a non-violence war between communism and capitalism. In other words, it was a war between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between Chinese communism and capitalism. The United States was during the Red Scare at that time, so they did not want to see another communist country rising in the world. They also want to win the Cold War from the Soviets. Therefore, they supported capitalism KMT and hoping that they can win the battle. The Soviet Union supported the Communist Party in China. Unfortunately, Communists took control over China, which means a new big communist country appeared. For the United States, this was not a good sign during the Cold War that indicated they lost the Soviets in this event.

Sherry (Jiayue) Li

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